Fritz Allhoff and Jonathan Milgrim, “Conflicts of Interest, Emoluments, and the Presidency,” International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31.1 (2017): 45-67.
ABSTRACT: The past presidential election reinvigorated interest in the applicability of conflict of interest legislation to the executive branch. In §2, we survey various approaches to conflicts of interest, paying particular attention to 18 U.S.C. §208. Under 18 U.S.C. §202, this conflict of interest statute is straightforwardly inapplicable to the President. We then explore the normative foundations of such an exemption in §3. While these sections are ultimately lenient, we go on to consider the Emoluments Clause of the United States Constitution in §4. In §§5–6, we apply the Emoluments Clause to the presidency, arguing that it complements conflict-of-interest regimes with regards to foreign affairs, but with more substantial restrictions.